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Look up William in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Name list This page or section lists people that share the same given name.
This would have been considered tampering with the king's authority over his vassals, which William would not have tolerated. Although Odo remained in confinement for the rest of William's reign, his lands were not confiscated.
More difficulties struck in , when William's eldest son Robert rebelled once more with support from the French king. A further blow was the death of Matilda, William's wife, on 2 November William was always described as close to his wife, and her death would have added to his problems.
Maine continued to be difficult, with a rebellion by Hubert de Beaumont-au-Maine , probably in Hubert was besieged in his castle at Sainte-Suzanne by William's forces for at least two years, but he eventually made his peace with the king and was restored to favour.
Although English and Norman forces remained on alert throughout and into , the invasion threat was ended by Cnut's death in July These fortifications allowed Normans to retreat into safety when threatened with rebellion and allowed garrisons to be protected while they occupied the countryside.
The early castles were simple earth and timber constructions, later replaced with stone structures. At first, most of the newly settled Normans kept household knights and did not settle their retainers with fiefs of their own, but gradually these household knights came to be granted lands of their own, a process known as subinfeudation.
William also required his newly created magnates to contribute fixed quotas of knights towards not only military campaigns but also castle garrisons.
This method of organising the military forces was a departure from the pre-Conquest English practice of basing military service on territorial units such as the hide.
By William's death, after weathering a series of rebellions, most of the native Anglo-Saxon aristocracy had been replaced by Norman and other continental magnates.
Not all of the Normans who accompanied William in the initial conquest acquired large amounts of land in England. Some appear to have been reluctant to take up lands in a kingdom that did not always appear pacified.
Although some of the newly rich Normans in England came from William's close family or from the upper Norman nobility, others were from relatively humble backgrounds.
The medieval chronicler William of Malmesbury says that the king also seized and depopulated many miles of land 36 parishes , turning it into the royal New Forest region to support his enthusiastic enjoyment of hunting.
Modern historians have come to the conclusion that the New Forest depopulation was greatly exaggerated. Most of the lands of the New Forest are poor agricultural lands, and archaeological and geographic studies have shown that the New Forest was likely sparsely settled when it was turned into a royal forest.
After , William did not attempt to integrate his separate domains into one unified realm with one set of laws. His seal from after , of which six impressions still survive, was made for him after he conquered England and stressed his role as king, while separately mentioning his role as Duke.
The administrative machinery of Normandy, England, and Maine continued to exist separate from the other lands, with each one retaining its own forms.
For example, England continued the use of writs , which were not known on the continent. Also, the charters and documents produced for the government in Normandy differed in formulas from those produced in England.
William took over an English government that was more complex than the Norman system. England was divided into shires or counties, which were further divided into either hundreds or wapentakes.
Each shire was administered by a royal official called a sheriff, who roughly had the same status as a Norman viscount.
A sheriff was responsible for royal justice and collecting royal revenue. He crossed back and forth between the continent and England at least 19 times between and his death.
William spent most of his time in England between the Battle of Hastings and , and after that, he spent the majority of his time in Normandy.
William also appointed deputies who could make decisions while he was absent, especially if the absence was expected to be lengthy. Sometimes deputies were appointed to deal with specific issues.
William continued the collection of danegeld, a land tax. This was an advantage for William, as it was the only universal tax collected by western European rulers during this period.
It was an annual tax based on the value of landholdings, and it could be collected at differing rates. Most years saw the rate of two shillings per hide, but in crises, it could be increased to as much as six shillings per hide.
English coins were generally of high silver content, with high artistic standards, and were required to be re-minted every three years.
Norman coins had a much lower silver content, were often of poor artistic quality, and were rarely re-minted. Also, in England, no other coinage was allowed, while on the continent other coinage was considered legal tender.
Nor is there evidence that many English pennies were circulating in Normandy, which shows little attempt to integrate the monetary systems of England and Normandy.
Besides taxation, William's large landholdings throughout England strengthened his rule. As King Edward's heir, he controlled all of the former royal lands.
He also retained control of much of the lands of Harold and his family, which made the king the largest secular landowner in England by a wide margin.
At Christmas , William ordered the compilation of a survey of the landholdings held by himself and by his vassals throughout his kingdom, organised by counties.
It resulted in a work now known as the Domesday Book. The listing for each county gives the holdings of each landholder, grouped by owners.
The listings describe the holding, who owned the land before the Conquest, its value, what the tax assessment was, and usually the number of peasants, ploughs, and any other resources the holding had.
Towns were listed separately. All the English counties south of the River Tees and River Ribble are included, and the whole work seems to have been mostly completed by 1 August , when the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that William received the results and that all the chief magnates swore the Salisbury Oath , a renewal of their oaths of allegiance.
William left England towards the end of Following his arrival back on the continent he married his daughter Constance to Alan Fergant , the Duke of Brittany, in furtherance of his policy of seeking allies against the French kings.
William's son Robert, still allied with the French king, appears to have been active in stirring up trouble, enough so that William led an expedition against the French Vexin in July While seizing Mantes , William either fell ill or was injured by the pommel of his saddle.
Orderic Vitalis preserves a lengthy account, complete with speeches made by many of the principals, but this is likely more of an account of how a king should die than of what actually happened.
The other, the De Obitu Willelmi , or On the Death of William , has been shown to be a copy of two 9th-century accounts with names changed.
William left Normandy to Robert, and the custody of England was given to William's second surviving son, also called William, on the assumption that he would become king.
The youngest son, Henry, received money. After entrusting England to his second son, the elder William sent the younger William back to England on 7 or 8 September, bearing a letter to Lanfranc ordering the archbishop to aid the new king.
Other bequests included gifts to the Church and money to be distributed to the poor. William also ordered that all of his prisoners be released, including his half-brother Odo.
Disorder followed William's death; everyone who had been at his deathbed left the body at Rouen and hurried off to attend to their own affairs.
Eventually, the clergy of Rouen arranged to have the body sent to Caen, where William had desired to be buried in his foundation of the Abbaye-aux-Hommes.
The funeral, attended by the bishops and abbots of Normandy as well as his son Henry, was disturbed by the assertion of a citizen of Caen who alleged that his family had been illegally despoiled of the land on which the church was built.
After hurried consultations, the allegation was shown to be true, and the man was compensated. A further indignity occurred when the corpse was lowered into the tomb.
The corpse was too large for the space, and when attendants forced the body into the tomb it burst, spreading a disgusting odour throughout the church.
William's grave is currently marked by a marble slab with a Latin inscription dating from the early 19th century. The tomb has been disturbed several times since , the first time in when the grave was opened on orders from the papacy.
The intact body was restored to the tomb at that time, but in , during the French Wars of Religion , the grave was reopened and the bones scattered and lost, with the exception of one thigh bone.
This lone relic was reburied in with a new marker, which was replaced years later with a more elaborate monument. This tomb was again destroyed during the French Revolution but was eventually replaced with the current marker.
The immediate consequence of William's death was a war between his sons Robert and William over control of England and Normandy. The difficulties over the succession led to a loss of authority in Normandy, with the aristocracy regaining much of the power they had lost to the elder William.
His sons also lost much of their control over Maine, which revolted in and managed to remain mostly free of Norman influence thereafter.
The impact on England of William's conquest was profound; changes in the Church, aristocracy, culture, and language of the country have persisted into modern times.
The Conquest brought the kingdom into closer contact with France and forged ties between France and England that lasted throughout the Middle Ages.
Another consequence of William's invasion was the sundering of the formerly close ties between England and Scandinavia. William's government blended elements of the English and Norman systems into a new one that laid the foundations of the later medieval English kingdom.
Others, such as H. Sayles, see the changes brought about by the Conquest as much less radical than Southern suggests.
William's reign has caused historical controversy since before his death. William of Poitiers wrote glowingly of William's reign and its benefits, but the obituary notice for William in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle condemns William in harsh terms.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, some historians and lawyers saw William's reign as imposing a " Norman yoke " on the native Anglo-Saxons, an argument that continued during the 19th century with further elaborations along nationalistic lines.
These various controversies have led to William being seen by some historians either as one of the creators of England's greatness or as inflicting one of the greatest defeats in English history.
Others have viewed William as an enemy of the English constitution, or alternatively as its creator. William and his wife Matilda of Flanders had at least nine children.
There is no evidence of any illegitimate children born to William. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Conqueror of England, first Norman king of England.
For other uses, see William the Conqueror disambiguation. Not to be confused with William Longsword. William as depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry during the Battle of Hastings , lifting his helm to show that he is still alive.
Norman conquest of England. Harrying of the North. Revolt of the Earls. Williame I ; Old English: Orderic Vitalis has William on his deathbed claim that he was 64 years old, which would place his birth around But elsewhere, Orderic states that William was 8 years old when his father left for Jerusalem in , placing the year of birth in William of Malmesbury gives an age of 7 for William when his father left, giving Another source, De Obitu Willelmi , states that William was 59 years old when he died in , allowing for either or One became a nun, and the other, Matilda, married Ralph Tesson.
The Church, under the influence of the Gregorian reform , held the view that the sin of extramarital sex tainted any offspring that resulted, but nobles had not totally embraced the Church's viewpoint during William's lifetime.
There is no record of the reason from the Council, and the main evidence is from Orderic Vitalis. He hinted obliquely that William and Matilda were too closely related , but gave no details, hence the matter remains obscure.
After returning to Normandy in , William spent around months in Normandy as against about 40 months in England. Freeman was of the opinion that the bone had been lost in In his Historia Ecclesiastica , Orderic specifically names her as Agatha, "former fiancee of Harold".
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May The English Church — A History of the Anglo-Norman Church. Retrieved 29 June Retrieved 26 March Anuario de Estudios Medievales in Spanish.
The Struggle for Mastery: The Penguin History of Britain — England and its Rulers: Blackwell Classic Histories of England Third ed.
The Birth of Nobility: Constructing Aristocracy in England and France, — The Norman Impact Upon England.
It was later borne by three other English kings, as well as rulers of Scotland, Sicily of Norman origin , the Netherlands and Prussia.
Other famous bearers include William Wallace, a 13th-century Scottish hero, and William Tell, a legendary 14th-century Swiss hero. In the literary world it was borne by dramatist William Shakespeare , poet William Blake , poet William Wordsworth , dramatist William Butler Yeats , author William Faulkner , and author William S.
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Last ranked 11 in England and Wales. Last ranked 88 in France. Last ranked 54 in Ireland. Last ranked in Italy. In fact, the form William is from the Old Norman form Williame , because the English language should have retained helm.
This development can be followed in the different versions of the name in the Wace 's Roman de Rou. The spelling and phonetics Wi- [wi] is a characteristic trait of the Northern French dialects, but the pronunciation changed in Norman from [wi] to [vi] in the 12th century cf.
The Modern French spelling is Guillaume. The first well-known carrier of the name was Charlemagne 's cousin William of Gellone , a.
This William is immortalized in the Chanson de Guillaume and his esteem may account for the name's subsequent popularity among European nobility.
According to Dutch legend, as recorded by Verstegan — , William is originally derived from the Germanic name Gildhelm, meaning "golden helmet" and dates to Roman times.
The name was later adapted as the more well known forms of "Wilhelm", and "Guillaume". Verstegen states that Gildhelm was a title of bravery awarded to a German for killing Roman soldiers in battle.
The honored soldier was lifted on a shield and a golden helmet of a dead Roman soldier was placed upon his head, and the soldier was honored with the title "Gildhelm", or "golden helmet".
With the French the title was Guildhaume, and Since Guillaume. Latin Guielmus   "Helm" could also refer to the golden diadem or crown of a king as was common in the later days of the Roman empire.
The name Wilkin is also of medieval origin taken from the shortened version of William Will with the suffix "kin" added. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see William disambiguation. For other uses, see WM disambiguation. William the Conqueror The name William became very popular in the English language after the Norman conquest of England in by William the Conqueror.
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