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On 5 February , Engels had run marathon distances in as many days. Some runners compete to run the same marathons for the most consecutive years.

Most participants do not run a marathon to win. More important for most runners is their personal finish time and their placement within their specific gender and age group, though some runners just want to finish.

Strategies for completing a marathon include running the whole distance [] and a run—walk strategy. A goal many runners aim for is to break certain time barriers.

For example, recreational first-timers often try to run the marathon under four hours; more competitive runners may attempt to finish under three hours.

The Boston Marathon , the oldest marathon in the United States, requires a qualifying time for all non-professional runners.

Typically, there is a maximum allowed time of about six hours after which the marathon route is closed, although some larger marathons keep the course open considerably longer eight hours or more.

Many marathons around the world have such time limits by which all runners must have crossed the finish line.

Anyone slower than the limit will be picked up by a sweeper bus. In many cases the marathon organizers are required to reopen the roads to the public so that traffic can return to normal.

With the growth in popularity of marathoning, many marathons across the United States and the world have been filling to capacity faster than ever before.

When the Boston Marathon opened up registration for its running, the field capacity was filled within eight hours. The long run is an important element in marathon training.

More experienced marathoners may run a longer distance during the week. Greater weekly training mileages can offer greater results in terms of distance and endurance, but also carry a greater risk of training injury.

Many training programs last a minimum of five or six months, with a gradual increase in the distance run and finally, for recovery, a period of tapering in the weeks preceding the race.

For beginners wishing to merely finish a marathon, a minimum of four months of running four days a week is recommended. It is also often advised to maintain a consistent running program for six weeks or so before beginning a marathon training program, to allow the body to adapt to the new stresses.

Training programs can be found at the websites of Runner's World , [] Hal Higdon , [] Jeff Galloway , [3] and the Boston Athletic Association , [] and in numerous other published sources, including the websites of specific marathons.

The last long training run might be undertaken up to two weeks prior to the event. Many marathon runners also "carbo-load" increase carbohydrate intake while holding total caloric intake constant during the week before the marathon to allow their bodies to store more glycogen.

Carbohydrates that a person eats are converted by the liver and muscles into glycogen for storage. Glycogen burns rapidly to provide quick energy.

Many runners report that running becomes noticeably more difficult at that point. When this happens, the runner will experience dramatic fatigue and is said to " hit the wall ".

The aim of training for the marathon, according to many coaches, [] is to maximize the limited glycogen available so that the fatigue of the "wall" is not as dramatic.

This is accomplished in part by utilizing a higher percentage of energy from burned fat even during the early phase of the race, thus conserving glycogen.

Carbohydrate-based " energy gels " are used by runners to avoid or reduce the effect of "hitting the wall", as they provide easy to digest energy during the run.

Energy gels usually contain varying amounts of sodium and potassium and some also contain caffeine. They need to be consumed with a certain amount of water.

Recommendations for how often to take an energy gel during the race range widely. Alternatives to gels include various forms of concentrated sugars, and foods high in simple carbohydrates that can be digested easily.

Many runners experiment with consuming energy supplements during training runs to determine what works best for them.

Consumption of food while running sometimes makes the runner sick. Runners are advised not to ingest a new food or medicine just prior to or during a race.

These prostaglandins may act as inflammation factors throughout the body, but they also play a crucial role in maintenance of water retention.

Marathon participation may result in various medical, musculoskeletal , and dermatological complaints. The immune system is reportedly suppressed for a short time [ citation needed ].

Changes to the blood chemistry may lead physicians to mistakenly diagnose heart malfunction [ citation needed ]. After long training runs and the marathon itself, consuming carbohydrates to replace glycogen stores and protein to aid muscle recovery is commonly recommended.

In addition, soaking the lower half of the body for approximately 20 minutes in cold or ice water may force blood through the leg muscles to speed recovery.

Marathon running has various health risks. While rare, even death is a possibility during a race. Common health risks include injury such as blisters , tendonitis , fatigue , knee or ankle sprain , dehydration electrolyte imbalance , and other conditions.

Many are categorised as overuse injuries. In , a systematic medical review found that the risk of sudden cardiac death during or immediately after a marathon was between 0.

However, this review was not an attempt to assess the overall cardiac health impact of marathon running. A study of non-elite Boston Marathon participants tested runners for certain proteins that indicate heart damage or dysfunction see Troponin and gave them echocardiogram scans, before and after the marathon.

According to a Canadian study presented in , running a marathon can temporarily result in decreased function of more than half the muscle segments in the heart's main pumping chamber, but neighboring segments are generally able to compensate.

Full recovery is reached within one to three months. The fitter the runner, the less the effect. According to one of the researchers: Overconsumption is the most significant concern associated with water consumption during marathons.

Drinking excessive amounts of fluid during a race can lead to dilution of sodium in the blood, a condition called exercise-associated hyponatremia , which may result in vomiting, seizures, coma and even death.

Maharam, medical director for the New York City Marathon, stated in Cynthia Lucero died at the age of 28 while participating in the Boston Marathon.

It was Lucero's second marathon. Lucero was admitted to Brigham and Women's Hospital and died two days later. Lucero's cause of death was determined to be hyponatremic encephalopathy , a condition that causes swelling of the brain due to an imbalance of sodium in the blood known as exercise-associated hyponatremia EAH.

While EAH is sometimes referred to as " water intoxication ," Lucero drank large amounts of Gatorade during the race, [] [] demonstrating that runners who consume sodium-containing sports drinks in excess of thirst can still develop EAH.

Women are more prone to hyponatremia than men. Fluid intake should be adjusted individually as factors such as body weight, sex, climate, pace, fitness VO 2 max , and sweat rate are just a few variables that change fluid requirements between people and races.

The International Marathon Medical Directors Association IMMDA advises that runners drink a sports drink that includes carbohydrates and electrolytes instead of plain water and that runners should "drink to thirst" instead of feeling compelled to drink at every fluid station.

Some runners weigh themselves before running and write the results on their bibs. If anything goes wrong, first aid workers can use the weight information to tell if the patient had consumed too much water.

It becomes a greater risk in warm and humid weather, even for young and fit individuals. Treatment requires rapid physical cooling of the body.

Some charities seek to associate with various races. Some marathon organizers set aside a portion of their limited entry slots for charity organizations to sell to members in exchange for donations.

Runners are given the option to sign up to run particular races, especially when marathon entries are no longer available to the general public.

In some cases, charities organize their own marathon as a fund-raiser, gaining funds via entry fees or through sponsorships.

In the Mars rover Opportunity attained the distance of a marathon from its starting location on Mars, and the valley where it achieved this distance was called Marathon Valley, which was then explored.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Marathon disambiguation. Competitors during the Berlin Marathon. Marathons at the Olympics.

List of marathon races. Marathon world record progression and Marathon year rankings. Therefore this attempt is not eligible for official ratification.

Wilson Kipsang Kiprotich also ran 2: Dennis Kimetto also ran 2: Emmanuel Mutai also ran 2: Eliud Kipchoge also ran 2: Tamirat Tola also ran 2: Rita Sitienei Jeptoo Kenya ran a time of 2: Below is a list of all other times equal or superior to 2: Paula Radcliffe also ran 2: Tirunesh Dibaba also ran 2: Mary Jepkosgei Keitany also ran 2: Gladys Cherono also ran 2: Catherine Ndereba also ran 2: List of marathon fatalities.

International Association of Athletics Federations. Retrieved 1 November Association of International Marathons and Distance Races.

Retrieved 21 March Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 22 August Cool Running New Zealand. Archived from the original on 4 December New York, p.

Retrieved 25 December Retrieved 6 April Journal of Olympic History. Archived PDF from the original on 12 September Archived from the original on 19 June Retrieved 10 May The Burton Holmes Lectures: The Olympian games in Athens.

The wonders of Thessaly. Retrieved 25 April Digital compilation from original title: The Burton Holmes Lectures Volume 3: With Illustrations from Photographs by the Author , Year: Archived from the original on 11 January Archived from the original on 22 August Retrieved 21 August Archived 4 November at the Wayback Machine.

Official site of the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 5 August The World Almanac and Encyclopedia.

The Medical Debate over Athleticism, —". In Berryman, Jack W. Sport and Exercise Science: Essays in the History of Sports Medicine. University of Illinois Press.

Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 12 November Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. Archived PDF from the original on 11 April Retrieved 10 April Association of Road Racing Statisticians.

When marathons were just for men". Retrieved 4 November Kathrine Switzer became the first woman to officially run the race 45 years ago, despite stewards trying to physically force the year-old off the road.

Kelley and Tom Murphy Just Call Me Jock: Marathon , pages 7, —, Waterford Publishing Co. Past Women's Open Champions.

Archived from the original on 15 August Retrieved 23 July Archived from the original on Archived from the original PDF on 25 April Retrieved 20 April Retrieved on 18 April Archived from the original PDF on 12 May Retrieved 10 October Retrieved on 19 April Retrieved 23 April The case of the wheelchair runner".

The Existential Self in Society. University of Chicago Press. University of Illinois Board of Trustees.

Archived from the original on 27 July Retrieved 20 May Retrieved 21 May Shimada; Rosemarie Cooper Slovik; David Michael Dawson.

Exercise in rehabilitation medicine. Guinness World Records Limited. Kipchoge breaks marathon world record in Berlin with stunning 2: Retrieved 16 September Retrieved 28 September Retrieved on 26 October Retrieved on 26 April Retrieved 20 September Retrieved 25 September Retrieved 26 January Retrieved 22 October Retrieved 6 May Retrieved 3 May

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Today marathons are held all around the world on a nearly weekly basis. For a long time after the Olympic marathon started, there were no long-distance races, such as the marathon, for women.

Although a few women, such as Stamata Revithi in , had run the marathon distance, they were not included in any official results.

Arlene Pieper became the first woman to officially finish a marathon in the United States when she completed the Pikes Peak Marathon in Manitou Springs, Colorado, in The exact length depended on the route established for each venue.

The International Olympic Committee agreed in that the distance for the London Olympic marathon would be about 25 miles or 40 kilometres.

The organisers decided on a course of 26 miles from the start at Windsor Castle to the royal entrance to the White City Stadium , followed by a lap yards 2 feet; m of the track, finishing in front of the Royal Box.

An official IAAF marathon course is For events governed by IAAF rules, it is mandatory that the route be marked so that all competitors can see the distance covered in kilometres.

Annually, more than marathons are organized worldwide. In , the editors of Runner's World selected a "World's Top 10 Marathons", [54] in which the Amsterdam , Honolulu , Paris , Rotterdam , and Stockholm marathons were featured along with the five original World Marathon Majors events excluding Tokyo.

The Boston Marathon is the world's oldest annual marathon, inspired by the success of the Olympic marathon and held every year since to celebrate Patriots Day , a holiday marking the beginning of the American Revolution , thereby purposely linking Athenian and American struggle for democracy.

The historic Polytechnic Marathon was discontinued in Using unofficial and temporary courses, measured by GPS, races of marathon distance are now held at the North Pole , in Antarctica and over desert terrain.

The Intercontinental Istanbul Eurasia Marathon is the only marathon where participants run over two continents Europe and Asia during the course of a single event.

Many marathons feature a wheelchair division. Typically, those in the wheelchair racing division start their races earlier than their running counterparts.

The first wheelchair marathon was in in Toledo, Ohio, won by Bob Hall in 2: The New York City Marathon banned wheelchair entrants in , citing safety concerns, but then voluntarily allowed Bob Hall to compete after the state Division of Human Rights ordered the marathon to show cause.

Some of the quickest people to complete a wheel-chair marathon include Thomas Geierpichler Austria who won gold in men's Tclass marathon no lower limb function in 1 hr 49 min 7 sec in Beijing China, on 17 September ; and, Heinz Frei Switzerland who won the men's T54 marathon for racers with spinal cord injuries in a time of 1 hr 20 min and 14 sec in Oita, Japan, 31 October World records were not officially recognized by the IAAF until 1 January ; previously, the best times for the marathon were referred to as the 'world best'.

Courses must conform to IAAF standards for a record to be recognized. However, marathon routes still vary greatly in elevation, course, and surface, making exact comparisons impossible.

Typically, the fastest times are set over relatively flat courses near sea level, during good weather conditions and with the assistance of pacesetters.

The current world record time for men over the distance is 2 hours 1 minute and 39 seconds, set in the Berlin Marathon by Eliud Kipchoge of Kenya on 16 September , [73] an improvement of 1 minute 18 seconds over the previous record also set in the Berlin Marathon by Dennis Kipruto Kimetto , also of Kenya on 28 September Fauja Singh , then , finished the Toronto Waterfront Marathon , becoming the first centenarian ever to officially complete that distance.

Singh, a British citizen, finished the race on 16 October with a time of 8: Johnny Kelley ran his last full Boston Marathon at the documented age of 84 in He previously had won the Boston Marathon in both and respectively.

Between and , Johnny finished in the top five 15 times, consistently running in the 2: A fixture at Boston for more than a half century, his 61st start and 58th finish in Boston is a record which still stands today.

Gladys Burrill, a year-old Prospect, Oregon woman and part-time resident of Hawaii, previously held the Guinness World Records title of oldest person to complete a marathon with her 9 hours 53 minutes performance at the Honolulu Marathon.

In , year-old Harriette Thompson of Charlotte, North Carolina, completed the Rock 'n' Roll San Diego Marathon in 7 hours 24 minutes 36 seconds, thus becoming the oldest woman to complete a marathon.

English born Canadian Ed Whitlock is the oldest to complete a marathon in under 3 hours, at age 74 and under 4 hours at age Budhia Singh , a boy from Odisha , India, completed his first marathon at age three.

He trained under the coach Biranchi Das, who saw potential in him. In May , Budhia was temporarily banned from running by the ministers of child welfare, as his life could be at risk.

His coach was also arrested for exploiting and cruelty to a child and was later murdered in an unrelated incident. Budhia is now at a state-run sports academy.

The youngest under 4 hours is Mary Etta Boitano at age 7 years, days; under 3 hours Julie Mullin at 10 years days; and under 2: In , Running USA estimated that there were approximately , marathon finishers in the United States, [] while other sources reported greater than , finishers.

Marathon Finisher totals going back to Marathon running has become an obsession in China , with 22 marathon races in increasing to in In , 75 Chinese runners participated in the Boston Marathon and this increased to in As marathon running has become more popular, some athletes have undertaken challenges involving running a series of marathons.

The Marathon Club is intended to provide a focal point for all runners, particularly from the United Kingdom or Ireland, who have completed or more races of marathon distance or longer.

Brian Mills completed his th marathon on 17 September Steve Edwards, a member of the Marathon Club, set the world record for running marathons in the fastest average finish time of 3 hours 15 minutes, at the same time becoming the first man to run marathons with an official time below 3 hours 30 minutes, on 11 November at Milton Keynes, England.

The records took 24 years to achieve. Edwards was 49 at the time. Over individuals have completed a marathon in each state of the United States plus Washington, D.

Twenty-seven people have run a marathon on each of the seven continents, and 31 people have run a marathon in each of the Canadian provinces.

On 25 September , Patrick Finney of Grapevine, Texas became the first person with multiple sclerosis to finish a marathon in each state of the United States.

In , "the disease had left him unable to walk. In British adventurer Sir Ranulph Fiennes completed seven marathons on seven continents in seven days.

Larry Macon celebrated his 1,th career marathon at the Cowtown Marathon in Ft. Worth on 24 February Other goals are to attempt to run marathons on a series of consecutive weekends Richard Worley on weekends , [] or to run the most marathons during a particular year or the most in a lifetime.

A pioneer in running multiple marathons was Sy Mah of Toledo, Ohio, who ran before he died in Christian Hottas is meanwhile the first runner who ever completed marathons.

He ran his th at TUI Marathon Hannover on 5 May together with a group of more than 80 friends from 11 countries, including 8 officers from the Marathons Clubs U.

In , Stefaan Engels , a Belgian, set out to run the marathon distance every day of the year. Because of a foot injury he had to resort to a handbike near the end of January However, on 5 February he was fully recovered and decided to reset the counter back to zero.

On 5 February , Engels had run marathon distances in as many days. Some runners compete to run the same marathons for the most consecutive years.

Most participants do not run a marathon to win. More important for most runners is their personal finish time and their placement within their specific gender and age group, though some runners just want to finish.

Strategies for completing a marathon include running the whole distance [] and a run—walk strategy. A goal many runners aim for is to break certain time barriers.

For example, recreational first-timers often try to run the marathon under four hours; more competitive runners may attempt to finish under three hours.

The Boston Marathon , the oldest marathon in the United States, requires a qualifying time for all non-professional runners. Typically, there is a maximum allowed time of about six hours after which the marathon route is closed, although some larger marathons keep the course open considerably longer eight hours or more.

Many marathons around the world have such time limits by which all runners must have crossed the finish line. Anyone slower than the limit will be picked up by a sweeper bus.

In many cases the marathon organizers are required to reopen the roads to the public so that traffic can return to normal. With the growth in popularity of marathoning, many marathons across the United States and the world have been filling to capacity faster than ever before.

When the Boston Marathon opened up registration for its running, the field capacity was filled within eight hours.

The long run is an important element in marathon training. More experienced marathoners may run a longer distance during the week. Greater weekly training mileages can offer greater results in terms of distance and endurance, but also carry a greater risk of training injury.

Many training programs last a minimum of five or six months, with a gradual increase in the distance run and finally, for recovery, a period of tapering in the weeks preceding the race.

For beginners wishing to merely finish a marathon, a minimum of four months of running four days a week is recommended.

It is also often advised to maintain a consistent running program for six weeks or so before beginning a marathon training program, to allow the body to adapt to the new stresses.

Training programs can be found at the websites of Runner's World , [] Hal Higdon , [] Jeff Galloway , [3] and the Boston Athletic Association , [] and in numerous other published sources, including the websites of specific marathons.

The last long training run might be undertaken up to two weeks prior to the event. Many marathon runners also "carbo-load" increase carbohydrate intake while holding total caloric intake constant during the week before the marathon to allow their bodies to store more glycogen.

Carbohydrates that a person eats are converted by the liver and muscles into glycogen for storage. Glycogen burns rapidly to provide quick energy.

Many runners report that running becomes noticeably more difficult at that point. When this happens, the runner will experience dramatic fatigue and is said to " hit the wall ".

The aim of training for the marathon, according to many coaches, [] is to maximize the limited glycogen available so that the fatigue of the "wall" is not as dramatic.

This is accomplished in part by utilizing a higher percentage of energy from burned fat even during the early phase of the race, thus conserving glycogen.

Carbohydrate-based " energy gels " are used by runners to avoid or reduce the effect of "hitting the wall", as they provide easy to digest energy during the run.

Energy gels usually contain varying amounts of sodium and potassium and some also contain caffeine. They need to be consumed with a certain amount of water.

Recommendations for how often to take an energy gel during the race range widely. Alternatives to gels include various forms of concentrated sugars, and foods high in simple carbohydrates that can be digested easily.

Many runners experiment with consuming energy supplements during training runs to determine what works best for them. Consumption of food while running sometimes makes the runner sick.

Runners are advised not to ingest a new food or medicine just prior to or during a race. These prostaglandins may act as inflammation factors throughout the body, but they also play a crucial role in maintenance of water retention.

Marathon participation may result in various medical, musculoskeletal , and dermatological complaints. The immune system is reportedly suppressed for a short time [ citation needed ].

Changes to the blood chemistry may lead physicians to mistakenly diagnose heart malfunction [ citation needed ]. After long training runs and the marathon itself, consuming carbohydrates to replace glycogen stores and protein to aid muscle recovery is commonly recommended.

In addition, soaking the lower half of the body for approximately 20 minutes in cold or ice water may force blood through the leg muscles to speed recovery.

Marathon running has various health risks. While rare, even death is a possibility during a race. Common health risks include injury such as blisters , tendonitis , fatigue , knee or ankle sprain , dehydration electrolyte imbalance , and other conditions.

Many are categorised as overuse injuries. In , a systematic medical review found that the risk of sudden cardiac death during or immediately after a marathon was between 0.

However, this review was not an attempt to assess the overall cardiac health impact of marathon running. A study of non-elite Boston Marathon participants tested runners for certain proteins that indicate heart damage or dysfunction see Troponin and gave them echocardiogram scans, before and after the marathon.

According to a Canadian study presented in , running a marathon can temporarily result in decreased function of more than half the muscle segments in the heart's main pumping chamber, but neighboring segments are generally able to compensate.

Full recovery is reached within one to three months. The fitter the runner, the less the effect. According to one of the researchers: Overconsumption is the most significant concern associated with water consumption during marathons.

Drinking excessive amounts of fluid during a race can lead to dilution of sodium in the blood, a condition called exercise-associated hyponatremia , which may result in vomiting, seizures, coma and even death.

Maharam, medical director for the New York City Marathon, stated in Cynthia Lucero died at the age of 28 while participating in the Boston Marathon.

It was Lucero's second marathon. Lucero was admitted to Brigham and Women's Hospital and died two days later. Lucero's cause of death was determined to be hyponatremic encephalopathy , a condition that causes swelling of the brain due to an imbalance of sodium in the blood known as exercise-associated hyponatremia EAH.

While EAH is sometimes referred to as " water intoxication ," Lucero drank large amounts of Gatorade during the race, [] [] demonstrating that runners who consume sodium-containing sports drinks in excess of thirst can still develop EAH.

Women are more prone to hyponatremia than men. Fluid intake should be adjusted individually as factors such as body weight, sex, climate, pace, fitness VO 2 max , and sweat rate are just a few variables that change fluid requirements between people and races.

The International Marathon Medical Directors Association IMMDA advises that runners drink a sports drink that includes carbohydrates and electrolytes instead of plain water and that runners should "drink to thirst" instead of feeling compelled to drink at every fluid station.

Some runners weigh themselves before running and write the results on their bibs. If anything goes wrong, first aid workers can use the weight information to tell if the patient had consumed too much water.

It becomes a greater risk in warm and humid weather, even for young and fit individuals. Treatment requires rapid physical cooling of the body.

Some charities seek to associate with various races. Some marathon organizers set aside a portion of their limited entry slots for charity organizations to sell to members in exchange for donations.

Runners are given the option to sign up to run particular races, especially when marathon entries are no longer available to the general public.

In some cases, charities organize their own marathon as a fund-raiser, gaining funds via entry fees or through sponsorships.

In the Mars rover Opportunity attained the distance of a marathon from its starting location on Mars, and the valley where it achieved this distance was called Marathon Valley, which was then explored.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Marathon disambiguation. Competitors during the Berlin Marathon. Marathons at the Olympics.

List of marathon races. Marathon world record progression and Marathon year rankings. Therefore this attempt is not eligible for official ratification.

Wilson Kipsang Kiprotich also ran 2: Dennis Kimetto also ran 2: Emmanuel Mutai also ran 2: Eliud Kipchoge also ran 2: Tamirat Tola also ran 2: Rita Sitienei Jeptoo Kenya ran a time of 2: Below is a list of all other times equal or superior to 2: Paula Radcliffe also ran 2: Tirunesh Dibaba also ran 2: Mary Jepkosgei Keitany also ran 2: Gladys Cherono also ran 2: Catherine Ndereba also ran 2: List of marathon fatalities.

International Association of Athletics Federations. Retrieved 1 November Association of International Marathons and Distance Races. Retrieved 21 March Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 22 August Cool Running New Zealand.

Archived from the original on 4 December New York, p. Retrieved 25 December Retrieved 6 April Journal of Olympic History.

Archived PDF from the original on 12 September Archived from the original on 19 June Retrieved 10 May The Burton Holmes Lectures: This group of the winner will balance the sports betting world, to produce a winning group with main thoughtful of promoting consistently precise soccer betting tips for punters worldwide.

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